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Words: - Pages: 5. Essay A Just War : St. Essay The Spiritual Nature Of Religion of the beings and places that exist in a pious sense, has been a major aspect of the lives of individuals, families, cities and even countries as a whole. Words: - Pages: 7. Words: - Pages: 3. Augustine that St. Words: - Pages: 6. How can it observe anything without bringing that thing into the temporal series? Does this provide an answer to the objection, or does it rely on one?
As pointed out by Brian Leftow in a similar context Leftow ; also Fales , on the view proposed, the temporal and the eternal can enter into causal relations only if they are in some sense simultaneous. That is the reason ET-simultaneity is invoked. If one then relies on a notion of ET-causality in the definition of ET-simultaneity one faces a problem of circularity.
Third, what role, if any, is special relativity playing in the proposal? The intended role is a considerable one. But it is hard to see how they could show this.
But the difficulties with ET-simultaneity arise whether it is two-place or three-place. They pertain to spelling out what an eternal present and the unique eternal frame of reference might be, and how there can be causal relations, including observational ones, between a being in it and us. No comparable difficulties are involved in special relativity Fales ; also Padgett 71; Craig For Brian Leftow, the central idea is that all things in time are also, with God, in timeless eternity.
He finds this idea in Anselm. Like in the Stump and Kretzmann proposal, the idea is given a contemporary twist through appeals to the notion of a reference frame and special relativity. Consider the claim that God has no spatial location. Since there can be a spatial distance only between things or locations in space, this implies that there is no spatial distance between God and things in space.
The Zero Thesis says not only that the distance between God and any spatial thing is zero, but also that it always is zero. Therefore nothing ever moves with respect to God. Moreover, all change supervenes on motion, e.
So there is no change with respect to God Leftow Therefore, God and all spatial things share a frame of reference, the reference frame of eternity, in which nothing changes. That is, they all occur at eternity, and eternity is something like another time, so they are all simultaneous. But in other, temporal reference frames, this is not the case. So in these frames, they are nonsimultaneous. And this is where special relativity comes in. After all, the relativity of simultaneity shows that events simultaneous in one frame of reference may be nonsimultaneous in others.
From the fact that there is no spatial distance between spatial things and God, it does not follow that the spatial distance between spatial things and God is zero. A similar inference leads one to claim that all spatial things are spatially contiguous with yellow and the number 3. Leftow is of course aware of this consequence, and accepts it as a surprising finding about yellow and the number 3; he argues that the Zero Thesis only seems problematic because one fails to notice that a distance of zero is just an absence of distance Leftow However, a distance of zero would seem to be a distance, not an absence of distance Oppy , in Other Internet Resources.
A reference frame is a system of physical devices such as measuring rods and clocks that allow an observer to fix the positions of events. Nor is it clear how timeless eternity can, in addition, be like a time, simultaneity with which can be the outcome of measurements. McTaggart , and being and becoming in modern physics. McTaggart distinguished between the A-series and the B-series of events. The A-series runs from the future through the present and into the past, while the B-series runs from earlier to later McTaggart This distinction survives in the form of the contemporary opposition between the B-theory and various versions of the A-theory of time.
A tenseless description is one that stays accurate, because it mentions only such things as which events happen when, and how they are temporally related to one another.
So it mentions only facts about B-relations like simultaneity and succession. Call these tenseless facts. Opposed to this are various versions of the A-theory, which deny one or both of a and b. What these A-theoretic views including eternalist and non-eternalist ones, like presentism or the growing block view have in common is that they metaphysically privilege one time. Fundamental tensed facts capture this privilege.
One prominent motivation for the A-theory is the conviction that time passes robustly—i. Let A-occurring be occurring now, and let B-occurring be occurring at a certain temporal location t that is now. B-occurring entails A-occurring: if something occurs at a temporal B-location t that is now, it occurs now. But not vice versa. Something can occur now without occurring at a temporal B-location t that is now. Something can, that is, A-occur without B-occurring.
B-simultaneity, by contrast, is having the same temporal B-location in some B-series. If two events are B-simultaneous and they B-occur i. And if two events occur at the same atemporal now and A-occur i.
Augustine of Hipo's Ideas of Creation and Time in The Confessions Essay
Leftow According to Leftow, there can be no change in timeless eternity, and in eternity, all events happen A- simultaneously. However, in some places eternity is instead described as involving succession, namely as consisting of a number of different B-series corresponding to different temporal reference frames Leftow Prima facie , these are different, incompatible ideas. B-theorists, who hold that time, fundamentally, consists of events standing in B-relations of precedence and simultaneity, do not also hold that all of time collapses to a single time.
These points are at least in some sense earlier and later than one another, but they do not stand in the relation of succession. This seemingly paradoxical claim is partly defended via appeals to the B-theory. In this respect, we are told, it is like life in B-time, only without an illusion of temporal passage. There is a danger here of misinterpreting the B-theory. Relatedly, the traditional project of squaring our temporal experience with the B-theory is about explaining away an illusion of temporal passage, not about explaining away an illusion of temporal succession see the SEP entry on the experience and perception of time.
Since the B-theory posits succession a B-relation , an experience of succession is non-illusory, on the B-theory.
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