Thesis gender based violence

Violence against women of Pakistan: a case study of the Cholistan desert

The Non—Governmental Organizations Coordinating Council NGOCC , an umbrella organization coordinating member NGOs, faith based organisations and community based organisation addressing gender and development through training, networking and advocacy, has been advocating for the scaling up of the fast-track courts and the operationalisation of an anti-GBV fund to help survivors. Since it was established in , NGOCC has grown from being a co-coordinating body to a focal point for women issues in Zambia. Mwale says few people know about the law, especially women, who are in most cases the worst affected.

NGOCC is simplifying and translating its key messages into local languages to help more women understand it, especially how to identify the various forms of GBV, how to preserve evidence and where to report. The organisation is also carrying out awareness campaigns countrywide. Meanwhile, another NGO, Women for Change, has been implementing a village-led initiative dubbed One Stop Centre whereby community members are trained in handling GBV cases, where and to whom to refer cases they cannot handle and collaborating with the police.

The executive director, Lumba Siyanga, told Africa Renewal that the centres provide health services, legal advice and social protection services under one roof. The lobby is creating awareness that men, in partnership with women, could play a significant role in ending GBV.

Skip to main content. Welcome to the United Nations. Toggle navigation Language:. Africa Renewal. Zambia: Fighting gender-based violence as fresh cases continue to emerge. Get our app. The mother of five says she has nowhere else to go since her husband is the sole breadwinner. Awareness Yet despite the grim picture, statistics suggest that women are beginning to take steps to report such cases. More from Africa Renewal. Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr. This article reports preliminary results of a pilot study conducted at the University of South Africa Unisa.

The study aimed to ascertain perceptions of GBV among university staff. A range of frequency-seeking questions aimed at exploring awareness, experiences, and reflections about solutions to GBV were posed to selected staff members by means of an online survey. The results of the survey are presented here in graphic form and subjected to descriptive analysis, which is compared with existing literature on the topic.

We conclude that we cannot expect trends reported in literature to be replicated in any research study. Their article offers useful starting points for our work, including the troubling intersection between traditional culture and gender roles, as well as why men abuse their wives, and what can be done about it.

All scholarly analyses of GBV agree that it is a multidimensional problem, and that isolating the root causes is well-nigh impossible, making prevention equally difficult to achieve.

While part of the root cause lies in restrictive patriarchal norms for women in South Africa, gendered inequalities in relation to education and employment also contribute to the prevalence of GBV Jewkes, ; Mahlori, These inequalities make women economically and socially subordinate to men. This means that women are poorer than men and are likely to be economically dependent on men, further reducing their agency and ability to resist GBV, which often combines physical cruelty with financial deprivation.

Economic disempowerment goes hand in hand with the prevalence of GBV. Put another way, poor women are more at risk for GBV than wealthy ones. Possibly as a result, there is a paucity of data available on the prevalence of GBV among the educated strata of South African society.

The educated strata form the target population for this study. If the link between GBV and poverty is absolute, then better resourced women should be less susceptible.

In fact, there is limited research on GBV among the tertiary education community, despite the university context in South Africa having received attention when four members of the academic staff were dismissed from the University of the Witwatersrand in and The findings of the investigation revealed, as was to be expected, that GBV was and is much more widespread in the university community than was previously suspected CALS, University of the Witwatersrand, , n.

The report is unique in the context of studies of GBV in a university context in that it focuses extensively on responses to the problem, outlining three possible routes to providing justice for the victims and perpetrators of GBV. The South African Police Services publish crime statistics on an annual basis. The total of reported sexual offenses in was 66,; 64, in ; 66, in ; 62, in ; and 53, in These numbers paint a gloomy picture of GBV in South Africa, especially when compared with the figures for murder and attempted murder, which are between 16, and 17, per year Crime Stats SA, However, as Dunkle et al.

It is well-nigh impossible to specify the exact extent of GBV in South Africa with any accuracy because of the problem of underreporting and a lack of current research into the problem. One of the features that make it difficult to eliminate GBV is its multisectoral nature. If we explore only the health aspects of the problem, it is easy to see that GBV has pathological implications for the psyche and health of both perpetrators and victims.

The psychological and health damages that result from exposure to GBV can be translated into economic costs for the individuals concerned as well as for their societies. Morrison, Ellsberg, and Bott cite the U. In addition, Morrison et al. They record that more DALYs are lost to women as a result of GBV than as a result of cancer or motor vehicle accidents, and that the effect spills over onto the children of those who have suffered GBV as well Morrison et al.

University staff who experience GBV are likely to suffer further costs, in the form of studies that are not completed as a result of the trauma experienced by victims.

Sexual and gender-based violence against women in rural communities in Uganda

It is necessary to acknowledge that the problem of GBV spreads across the educational context, from schools to universities. Data regarding GBV in university communities are, however, less plentiful. Similarly, Gordon and Collins conducted in-depth interviews with 12 women students at another South African university to analyze the extent of GBV at the institution. They drew similar conclusions to Shefer, Clowes, and Vergnan in that both studies found that gender inequalities among university students and staff give rise to a damaging culture of GBV being normalized.

The report found that there was a grave lack of structures at the university that could deal with cases of GBV. A decrease in their grades; ii. Failing courses; iii. Changing degrees; iv. Abandoning activities they enjoy; v. Changing universities; or vi. In addition, the CALS, University of the Witwatersrand report makes pertinent and extensive recommendations about interventions at the university aimed at reducing the rate of sexual harassment.

These include steps such as formulating a clear and accessible policy on sexual harassment; a precise definition of sexual harassment that would be communicated to all staff and students; and regulatory mechanisms regarding sexual and romantic relationships between staff and undergraduate or postgraduate students. In the African continent, in general, Gelaye et al. Their findings, as might have been surmised, were that there was a significant increase in the rate of depression ranging from mild to severe depression among students who had had any exposure to GBV.

Although their study is context-specific, it seems intuitively obvious that exposure to GBV among students and staff in South Africa will have a similar result on the victims, producing negative psychological effects such as depression, anxiety, lack of self-esteem, and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Hence, GBV in the African continent has pertinent consequences for the academic sector.


Unisa provides the university context for the present article, which discusses one phase of a 3-year university-wide research project. The project aims to bring mixed methods to bear on the task of assessing attitudes to, knowledge and experience of GBV among Unisa staff and students. Some of the methods that will be used to research the matter are as follows: online surveys and questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. The university occupies a different social and educational space from a residential university in that its mode of delivery is Open and Distance Learning.

The lack of physical proximity of students to campus and thus to their lecturers creates a unique dynamic, and one which, one might assume, would mitigate against GBV. Nevertheless, the research is based on the hypothesis that GBV does occur with regularity among staff and students at Unisa.

We base this assumption on the rare cases of GBV that are reported to university structures such as Student Affairs and Employee Health and Wellness and on the fact that GBV is, typically, severely underreported, which leads us to surmise that there are many more cases than have been reported in recent years.

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As mentioned in the previous section, this article describes one stage in a 3-year research project whose aim is to establish the prevalence and nature of GBV in the context of Unisa. In the initial stages of the project, an online survey was devised using Google Forms and distributed to a small population of Unisa staff members, who had volunteered to participate in the pilot study. The aim of the survey was to establish knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of GBV among Unisa staff.


The online survey method of gathering data was chosen for convenience and in light of the large size of the population to be sampled, given that Unisa employs approximately 5, staff and serves more than , students in seven learning regions country-wide, as well as serving international students. As Wright and others mention, online surveys provide both advantages and disadvantages for the researchers.

The advantages including the ability to reach populations that would otherwise be difficult to contact, especially when they are geographically remote from the researchers, cost-effectiveness, and saving time which the researchers can spend on other tasks. At the same time, there are disadvantages to this method of gathering data, especially the fact that the sampling process is random and does not allow researchers to gather demographic data about the participants Wright, In this article, the responses to an online survey distributed to a small sample of staff eight in November are analyzed.

A small sample was used to enable the researchers to gauge the usefulness of the survey by in-depth analysis of the responses. The participants were selected using snowball sampling.

What's the point? Small movements against sexual and gender-based violence - Angela Muruli - TEDxLSE

A Likert-type scale was used for the survey so that participants could respond by indicating the frequency of various GBV-related encounters and discussions. The data analysis was performed manually. In light of the small sample size, we analyzed the data by exploring deep meaning, rather than establishing trends. The results are presented in the form of graphs, followed by a descriptive analysis and then a comparison to the existing literature. Each question measured frequency of behavior, discussion, and experiences.

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Thesis gender based violence

Related thesis gender based violence

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